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Human Resource Management at Tesco and Sainsbury’s — December 20, 2016

Human Resource Management at Tesco and Sainsbury’s



Human Resource (HR) has become a key aspect of any organisation’s success. This perspective has gained prominence after the recognition of human resources as a major asset of an organisation. It is known as the human resource strategies that define how well the organisation is likely to achieve its objectives and visions by translating these into day-to-day tasks (Kunz & Linder, 2012). Furthermore, this assists in accomplishing the tasks that will allow the organisation to realise its long-term plans. It has been recognised as a vital part of an organisation’s competitive position for dissertation writing service. Hence, due to this, the human resource has been recognised as a separate function in a business (Wilton & Nick, 2013). However, merely the presence of resources in an organisation is not enough for it to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. The resources have to be managed effectively to do so and for this purpose, there is a need of human resource management (Berman & Evans, 2013). An organisation, therefore, there is a need to develop suitable strategies, conduct planning, and then manage HR in such a way that the function is coordinated with other functions in the organisation This assists in achieving the organisation’s goal or aim of existence (Wilton & Nick, 2013). In this report, human resource management strategies and planning procedures in Tesco and Sainsbury’s will be identified and evaluated through comparison. Both of these companies are found competing in the retail industry, in which Tesco and Sainsbury’s are completely a retail stores. Moreover, their policies and procedures will also be compared with each other.

Human Resource Strategies

Human resource strategies are used for identifying the needs of those human resources, which are essential for the future growth of the company. This helps in achieving the goals of an organisation and serves as a link between the strategic planning and human resource management. It is difficult to ascertain the upcoming workforce requirements of a company as the future is uncertain in assignment writing service. However, the prediction enables a company to be escaped from the worst conditions of future (Wilton & Nick, 2013). Strategic Human Resource planning gives the idea of how staff is needed for an organisation and how it should be distributed. By using these strategic planning, it can be estimated that within five years, how many employees will leave the job and how many will come to fulfil the places. In other words, it can be said that it refers to the procedure of forecasting the number of employees that are essential for a company (Berman & Evans, 2013).

Need of Human Resource Strategies

Tesco and Sainsbury’s are the two largest private retail sector companies in the UK. They have progressed rapidly with the passage of time. However, still, there are some reasons, for which both organisations are needed to adopt an effective strategic human resource planning (Armstrong & Reilly, 2011).

Huge Costs and Low Wages

In the Tesco, there is an imbalance situation in the wages that are paid to the employees, and cost that is required for the training of the staff. For instance, the wages do not satisfy the staff, as they expect the higher salary to be paid. At the same time, the cost of staff training is also increasing due to poor strategies in essay writing service (Kunz & Linder, 2012). In Sainsbury’s, the situation is rather stable, but employers are likely to cut the overtime salaries and this shows the real picture of low paid employees. Therefore, in both of these companies, there is a need to meet the objectives of huge profitability by using the human resource strategies. This gives the strategy to reduce the costs of training, however, at the same time, it might increase the cost if the process is not conducted efficiently (Truss et al., 2013).

Ineffective Strategy and Dissatisfaction

Tesco has a number of employees and approximate 476,000 workers are associated with this globally, while at Sainsbury’s, there are around 161,100 workers, which means that Tesco has better employment strategies as compared to Sainsbury’s. This company has been facing the challenges in terms of ineffective corporate policy and strategies (Piercy & Archer-Brown, 2014). For instance, the major strategy that is taken by both of these companies is the product differentiation and price-effectiveness. However, this is only for attracting the consumers. On the other hand, there is a need to attract employees as well and this requires subsidy-based strategies, which will increase the satisfaction of employees with their work (Global union, 2009).

Negative reliability of Performance

Due to the unfair employment practice within the organisations in the UK, the reliability of the performance of these companies is moving towards a negative trend. In future, it is estimated to be worst and this might be developed by using effective strategies (Piercy & Archer-Brown, 2014).

Comparing the Recruitment Process

Tesco comprises of advertising the available jobs through different ways. It is dependable on the availability of the jobs. Sainsbury’s, on the other hand, consists of taking job applications through their website or via phone (Kunz & Linder, 2012). Tesco has the strategies defined to first analyse the internal Talent Plan of the organisation in order to fill a particular vacancy. This procedure lists those current employees, which might be leaving their post due to some reason. If no appropriate people are available, the organisation moves from this Talent Plan towards advertising on the intranet of the company for the period of two weeks (Deakin, 2007).
Sainsbury’s has the browsing strategic process, through which the interested participants could look at the careers section, relating to available job roles of the company. In contrast, Tesco with the internal process also has the external recruitment process (John, 2014). The company advertises the available vacancies on their website or on the boards that are present in the stores. The recruitment process for Sainsbury’s has the online application form for the interested participants. For Tesco, the interested participants for the jobs that are based on the store can contact the stores with their CVs (Rogers & Helen, 2005). The interested people for the in-store based jobs at Tesco can also apply for their registration through the Jobcentre Plus. In Sainsbury’s, at the time when a candidate has submitted the application form, on their provided email addresses they would receive an email receipt from the organisation. The recruitment process for Sainsbury’s is easy and rather simple for tracking for a candidate (John, 2014). They could revisit the website of the organisation in order to check their progress of the submitted application for the job and even the options for editing the personal details of the candidate themselves (Richter & Ganit, 2015).

Comparing Motivational Theory and Reward

There are two different motivation theories, which are used by both Tesco and Sainsbury’s. They are commonly known as Maslow and Herzberg theory, which focus on rewards in the form of opportunities, positive environment, and motivation policies to attract employees (Tesco, 2010). For instance, Tesco has been using the Maslow theory, which helps in achieving different levels of success one-by-one. The main aim of Tesco is to motivate its workers by paying incentives and bonuses to satisfy employees (Kunz & Linder, 2012). Sainsbury’s also has defined its strategies for adding bonuses on a yearly basis for the employees, but as per the job satisfaction level of the employees they are very low (Tessari, 2000). This theory assists the organisation to motivate its staff by improving the communication, giving responsibility, and involving them in the decision-making process.
As per Richter and Ganit (2015), based on this theory, Tesco allows the workers to be a part of the discussion on pay rises, which reflects a credit of work that staffs do and at the same time, rewards them. The company rewards staff for their work by focusing on Herzberg theory as it keeps workers motivated for the work and carries on applying altered motivation theories at work. Tesco and Sainsbury’s both pursue the pension system, which includes assistance that an employer creates on the behalf of employees. They also use sum reward by offering employees the complete value of their benefits package (Promberger & Marteau, 2013). Furthermore, Tesco rewards employees by giving extra benefits such as medical and car insurance, special offers and discounts, and Sainsbury’s strategies involve only normal wages and some bonuses.

Comparing Process of Job Evaluation

Job evaluation is known as a systematic process that defines the relative worth of jobs within an organisation. The basic purpose is to find internal relativities. It is used for providing the fundamentals for grading jobs, designing an equitable grade and pay structure, and managing the job as well as pay relativities (Kahya, 2006). Most of the retail organisations, such as Tesco and Sainsbury’s use the same strategies for job evaluation. It includes the company’s starter process management to give reasons and importance to employee. They fix a group, which includes knowledgeable HR specialists and employee and selects a job from every department to evaluate. A committee investigates the job in detail after getting training from the compensation department (Berman & Evans, 2013).

Comparing Effectiveness of Reward Systems Strategies

The reward system is a mix of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and it consists of integrated policies, practices, processes, and management procedures for implementing the system within the organisational system (John, 2014). Extrinsic rewards are tangible and the employee receives rewards in the form of bonuses, increments, and promotions. On the other hand, intrinsic rewards are liable to give personal satisfaction in the form of feedback, trust, and relationship (Berman & Evans, 2013). The Tesco’s reward system is remarkably effective for employees and management. For instance, it focuses on salary based rewards for customer service employees and they are more likely to work, however, some employees are not ready to receive a little increment (Global union, 2009). On the other hand, intrinsic and promotion rewards are especially for the store manager, who is getting huge personal satisfaction. The Sainsbury’s reward system is incompatible, as it keeps its strategies updating. For instance, the loyalty rewards system for all the employees in the organisation, which pays well when the employees show loyalty (Kunz & Linder, 2012).

Comparing Employee Performance Monitoring Strategies

Performance monitoring is necessary for every organisation to observe where the employees stand and where these employees are to be directed in the future. Similar is the case with Tesco, monitoring performance is significant and vital for management and employees and for this purpose; the company uses 360-degree feedback method. 360-degree feedback is used to evaluate all the executives, manager, and other officers (ETS, 2013). As mentioned by John Sale, who is the head of Tesco, 360 degrees provide an interesting feedback for employees by their peer, colleagues and line managers (Global union, 2009).
In the Sainsbury’s, the strategies for performance evaluation are also effective, but their systems are not comprised of any significant strategy to be applied for this purpose. However, in both the organisations, all employees have their Personal Development Plan that is built for monitoring employees. This helps these companies in providing its employees with potential feedback that create opportunities and development consistently (Truss et al., 2013).

Comprising Employment Exit Procedures and Strategies

Exit procedure is an important part of a company because it provides a closure to either the employee, who is retiring, leaving willingly or being terminated. The procedure in Tesco is initiated through an exit interview, which is conducted with an employee, who is leaving. This interview is done to investigate and discuss the reasons behind his/her resigning (Burgess & Annette, 2014). In cases where potential employees leave or employees are getting retired, alternative solutions to work out the problems are offered. This can be either in the form of increment in salary, additional incentives, or solution of any other issues that have induced him in resigning. Retiring employees get an offer of joining the Retired Staff Association if they wish to (Berman & Evans, 2013).
After it is clear that the employee will not stay, all the relevant exit documents are made available to the employee that will enable him to find the next job. The second last step of this exit procedure is the settlement of debts. Generally, in the case of termination, this step is necessary to be followed. If the employee owes any money to the company, then this is settled before handing the documents to the employee or it will be adjusted with this salary (Kunz & Linder, 2012). Similar is the case with a pension that is owed by the company and it will be paid along with the final salary to both types of employees. The last step in Exit procedure and strategies in Tesco is the return of the property to the company. If any sort of property such as the laptop or company car has previously been awarded to the employee then this will be taken back prior to providing the documents (Armstrong & Reilly, 2011).
More or less the same standard of the exit procedure in Tesco is followed in Sainsbury’s. The difference between the two is that Sainsbury’s focuses more on formal exit interviews compared to Tesco (Kahya, 2006). Furthermore, the notice period based on the number of years served to range from 0 to 12 weeks has to be completed in Sainsbury’s as a mandatory part of exit procedure, otherwise, a portion of notice pay is deducted (Berman & Evans, 2013). Management of Sainsbury’s sometimes also includes a strategy of supporting its senior employees in finding another job, as they focus on following specific laws. The rest of the process is similar to Tesco (Armstrong & Reilly, 2011).


This report presents the different aspects of human resource management that are strategies, planning, and development was discussed that are applicable to Tesco and Sainsbury’s. The features were also compared with those of Sainsbury’s that relates to the retail industry. However, just the presence of resources in an organisation is not enough for it to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. It can be concluded that the human resource management strategies are indeed in great shape in Tesco with great importance being paid to this key asset of the companies.


The recommendation that could be provided to both of these companies includes that they should be working on their strategic planning and included better and more effective systems for ensuring that the strategies are better from the competitors. The ineffective strategies especially in the attainment of employees that is the major role of human resource management are also in need of resolution in both of the companies. This is not it, as it has been found that Tesco has a sound performance management system, while Sainsbury’s lacks in its delivery of the performance of employees in many ways, this means that Sainsbury’s should be maintaining its Human resource strategies more particularly define for the performance management of the employees.
Coming to the strategies applied for accessing, motivation, and job evaluation of the employees, it comes to the view that Sainsbury’s, and Tesco both are competing well. However, the reward system of Tesco is better as compared to the Sainsbury’s, which means that the employees are better approached and kept with a satisfaction level being high in the Tesco. Both Tesco and Sainsbury’s have better-perceived exit procedure and strategies, while Sainsbury’s should adopt some specifications of Tesco, such as returning the property as well.


Armstrong, M..B.D. & Reilly, P., 2011. Increasing the effectiveness of reward management: an evidence-based approach. Employee Relations, 33(2), pp.106-20.

Berman, B.R. & Evans, J.R., 2013. Retail management: a strategic approach. Pearson Higher Ed.

Burgess & Annette, 2014. The social validity of a national assessment centre for selection into general practice training. BMC medical education , 14(1), p.261.


ETS, 2013. Tesco 360 degree feedback. Available at:

Global union, 2009. Tesco’s employment practices.

John, W., 2014. International human resource development: Learning, education and training for individuals and organisations. Development and Learning in Organizations, 28(2).

Kahya, E., 2006. A revision of a job evaluation system. Journal of advanced nursing, 56(3), pp.314-24.

Kunz & Linder, J.S., 2012. Organizational control and work effort–another look at the interplay of rewards and motivation. European Accounting Review , 21(3), pp. 591-621.

Piercy & Archer-Brown, N.C., 2014. Online service failure and propensity to suspend offline consumption. The Service Industries Journal, 34(8), pp.659-76.

Promberger & Marteau, M.T.M., 2013. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures. Health Psychology, 32(9), p.950.

Richter & Ganit, D.R.R.S.R., 2015. Studying Gamification: The Effect of Rewards and Incentives on Motivation. Gamification in Education and Business. Springer International Publishing, pp.21-46.

Rogers & Helen, P.N.G.K.L.G., 2005. The impact of market orientation on the internationalization of retailing firms: Tesco in Eastern Europe. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research , 15(1), pp.53-74.

Tesco, 2010. Motivational theory in practice at Tesco. [Online] Available at:


Truss, C. et al., 2013. Employee engagement in theory and practice. Routledge.

Wilton & Nick, 2013. An introduction to human resource management. Sage.


Operations Management a Growing Field — November 19, 2016

Operations Management a Growing Field


People usually focus on hitting the Human Resource Management, upper management and so on, but there is another position in the course of the business world, which is equally important as these are and it is named as operations management. Operations management is not as it goes in your business management assignment writing service, but it is one of the biggest responsibilities that you could ever hold in an organization. What it requires is controlling the whole organization even the operations of the Human Resource Management are also controlled by this department. This makes its importance high and hence, it is growing with might around the globe. A sketch of the market in relation to operation management has been discussed underneath.

What is the job of Operations Managers?


Operations manager actually rules over the whole organization, they have the power to control the jobs and the entrance to the exit of all the employees. The duties assigned to them along with the performance that should adhere to them are the duties of the operation management. This helps the organization to stay consistent in their jobs and this is also the reason that its value and exposure have been growing in all the fields of work. There work is more interesting as compared to the engineering dissertation writing help when they are all day working on different assignment with loads of varying topics and types of assignments.

What are The Areas of Development Required?


In order to make the career in the operations management, there is a high need for ensuring that the academic and professional development has been focused and achieved successfully by the candidates.
The employer considers most importantly, at the time of interviewing that candidate has its qualification equal and adequate for the job, because he or she is about to hand over their entire organization to them and a single mistake would cause the whole organization to doom.

What is being paid to them?


Their salaries are quite high of course, due to the fact that they are in the finest position in the organization. Along with this, they also have tougher and critical work to be done. Moreover, these high profile professionals are provided with extra incentive on each and every achievement of the organization and is criticized for each and every failure of the organization, has been taken as the responsibility of these operation management professionals.

Are there chances of growth?

Businesswoman Getting Interviewed

Well, of course, the operations management post grows well to the post of CEO or presidents of the entire firm. This is because at this position you have your whole organization under your control. Moreover, the competitors with higher salaries to be paid to them if they switch, which in the industrial or business world is ethical, also pursue them and yet, if the companies do not pay them well them these operations manager is also switch leaving the position for another new candidate. These are the aspect, which makes this professional growing highly around the globe.

Do My AP and SAT Scores Really Matter for Getting Into College? — November 9, 2016

Do My AP and SAT Scores Really Matter for Getting Into College?


The most often asked question and inquiries conducted by the students remain that “What is the score’s importance of AP and SAT?” in case you are already aware of this potential question then you must know that there is no definite answer to this query due to the fact that criterion keep changing. While if the question about the overall aspects of understanding in this regard then yes, these are of very high impact on getting admission in the colleges and this is the very reason they are included in the procedure of getting admission in the college. College admission is only part where you could take help from professionals while for the entire of the year you can finance dissertation writing service with ease.

Balanced Scores in the Test

The colleges emphasize on your high scores for sure, but this does not mean that the students with average scores are acquired. Instead, they are also considered as an important part of the admission because of the fact that they are looking for the students which are here at the college learn rather than just emphasizing on the things after knowing all and gaining good grades as if they were for granted. This also comes in the inline with the assignment writing the students, which are average in their studies, could take help from education assignment writing service and gain better grades.

Some Bad News Too

Bad news is always bad to hear and here comes one for the students with low SAT and AP scores. There are certain colleges, which lack in the grounds of, acknowledge of real skills, and base themselves completely in the SAT and AP. This causes many of these students remain away from the college even after having better skills than those who get admissions. They sometimes fail due to emergencies, confusions and also certain other accidental aspects, hereby; testing their complete knowledge requires an interview prior then failing them and not giving them admission.

Some Good News as Well

If you are having a good GPA then it could help you as well. This refers to the idea that the GPA system has an outclass impact on their admissions and those students who attain high GPA are prioritized by many of the colleges even if there SAT and AP are quite low. While this high GPA does not mean 3.0 but it should be greater than 3.0 GPA and it should be approaching 4.0 GPA, showing a high standard acquired by the students who is interested in the admission.

What’s the point?

This discussion concludes that the SAT and AP scores are highly influential in moist of the colleges, while still there are certain colleges which priorities you knowledge, and in contrast to them there are colleges which prefer you GPA to be high for admission. These all makes a point clear that you SAT and AP are an important parameter and gaining a good SAT and AP score is compulsorily important for the students.

Assessment of Rosetta Stone’ Sustainability for Public – Case Study — October 8, 2016

Assessment of Rosetta Stone’ Sustainability for Public – Case Study

Studying concept: black text Case Study under the piece of  torn

Key Features of Rosetta Stone’s Business Model and Core Business Strategy

From the case study, it has been evaluated that Rosetta Stone is one of the best brands in the English-speaking world in terms of language learning. With the passage of time, its revenues are increasing because of adopting the best methods and approaches in order to capture the customers’ interests. This business has focused on the developing business model, which continues to change in accordance with the sales force since it assists in managing the association with corporate customers (Véronis, 2000)buy dissertation online.

Mainly, Rosetta Stone is transitioning the cloud-based (Seattle-based Livemocha) business model due to its significant key features of being digitalised (Heminger & Robertson, 2000). This model goes beyond language learning to increase the knowledge of customers by bringing Dynamic Immersion Change in terms of images and texts for every individual belongs to different backgrounds while taking professional writing services . It can be used for deeper education technology to sell the best language-learning software packages to the customers. At the same time, the best pricing and elements are planned in this model to meet the needs of clients and generate revenues.

By contrast, this model cannot be acquired without using significant business strategies since it consists of making a qualified team of management and board of director prepare financial statements to develop a relationship with bankers and others when you asked to do assignment for coursework writing help. In order to be successful, this organisation focuses on the core business strategy called branding. For this purpose, the IPO process is being considered, which allows the organisation to be gone publically more by selling equity. In opposition, this process needs the use of social media (Google, commercials sites) for subscriptions that makes a profit by providing the way of charging high market prices. However, the social media is the secondary source for achieving the organisation’s purposes while IPO is only the core business method that has made the organisation dominating in the world.

Advantages and Disadvantages of IPO in Rosetta Stone

It has been mentioned previously that Rosetta Stone is more bending towards the use of Initial Public Offering (IPO), which was focused first in 2009. On this process, it raised approximately $112 million with the shares valued at $18.00. There might be several advantages of Rosetta Stone undertaking an IPO. The main benefit of Rosetta Stone going public is that the concerned process would allow the firm to expand the business by using capital since the equity is sold by the companies to make profits. Classical economic theory (2002) states that capital expansion is only possible if the investment is made. Further, this kind of expansion is vital for a business to enter into the new markets for internationalisation and to build the brand.

At the same time, an IPO process assists in establishing the business credibility while performing as a public firm. As a public organisation, Rosetta Stone could be advantageous in enhancing its corporate image and reputation. As per stakeholder theory (2002) soft and good, corporate image attracts or motivate the associated members to be a part of business activities, products or services. To proceed with an IPO is considered effective as the market for Rosetta Stone is showing the positive signs after the global financial crisis of 2008. Recently, several firms, such as a video game developer organisation ( and Bridgeport Education focused on “going public” and successfully experienced profitability.

Similarly, the language learning company consists of self-study learning that might be one of the leading organisations if IPO is used by taking over the capital and resources. Economically, no restrictions are imposed on Rosetta Stone with respect to the securities while the received fund may be used for common objectives including working capital, acquiring other businesses, and research and development. Modern finance theory (2013) demonstrates that the formal development of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is based on the increasing funds and securities.

IPO may create public markets for raising Rosetta Stones’ securities by focusing on liquidity, which is often required for future investors.  Following an IPO process, Rosetta Stone may have greater visibility as the media becomes greater economic incentive in order to cover the public company because of the investors want information about of being better off by making a huge investment.  Conversely, some disadvantages are also associated with this process, such as it takes minimum three months and thus young firms might be at risks of profit and loss. Moreover, it is an expensive process that legally consists of accounting as well as printing costs that are needed to be paid regardless of success or failures of the process.  However, economic cost theory identifies the need of selecting those alternatives that reduce the opportunity cost (Brouthers, 2002).

As a public company, Rosetta Stone may incur higher costs in accordance with the requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Once IPO process is adapted by a company, certain information (associated with financials and compensation) are required to be closed. Furthermore, legal undertakings necessary are the selection of the best team that ensures the need of listing the company’s shares through organising meetings in order to make rational decisions to proceed with IPO. With the help of market share listing, it would be possible to trade publicly in an efficient manner by controlling the specific proportion of the market.

Market-Multiples Approach

The approach of market multiples is a method that focuses on the idea that similar performance is present between companies that have similar economic and macro environment and same business. According to the concept, these businesses would have same profit margins, similar beta, same growth prospects resulting in an alike valuation multiple. Within the Market-Multiples approach, two methods are primarily used for comparison, which includes a comparison between the peers and the respected company. The methods for common market multiple includes Price to Free Cash Flow (P/FCF), Enterprise Multiple, Enterprise Value to Sales (EV/S), Price to Book (P/B), and Price to Earnings (P/E) (Luecke, 2002). The second method involves comparison of the market transaction between similar companies or those that fall in the same division, private equity corporation, purchased or acquired by a rival company, or those that are present in other classes of large and wealthy investors (Ryan, 2016).

The selection of the multiple values is dependent on the business nature and industry whereby the company functions. Compared to the equity value multiple approaches, the use of enterprise value multiples is more appropriate for Rosetta Stoned when it comes to the determination of exit value since it is the only method that despite the capital structure allows comparison of a variety of firm (Hollands, 2010). The enterprise value multiples method focuses on exit or terminal approach which functions assuming the company would be sold towards the end. Enterprise value method would allow a comparable acquisition that indicates the precise range of prices for an IPO.

Using the Market-Multiples Approach for Rosetta Stone’s IPO

In order to utilise the market multiples approach for presenting a suitable share price of the IPO situation of the Rosetta Stone, the Price-to-Earning ratio could be relevant here. It contributes in defining market value per share in terms of the earnings per share. This ratio indicates the market value of the stock in comparison with the relative earnings and can be calculated in the following manner,

Based on the 2009 data of the company (Nasdaq, 2009), the stock price of Rosetta Stone has been $ 112,500,000.00 and the EPS $ 6,250,000. The P/E ratio for the year 2009 becomes,

= $18.00

The above-presented calculations in terms of the Price-to-Earning ratio as the selected market multiples approach have indicated the share price for the company with respect to the IPO. This also identified capital-raising condition that had been faced by the company in 2009. This identifies the struggling period faced by the company based on the decision that was made by the management of Rosetta Stone regarding the pricing of the initial public offering of the company’s stock. The company does depict a strong financial performance for the described year.

In order to analyse this case from the IPO perspective, several considerations are to be made. The institutional factors regarding the equity issuance transaction should be investigated. It is highly recommended to understand the costs and benefits that related with the offerings of the public share. There has been a minimum amount of literature present that would identify the oral proficiency and the effectiveness of such methods of the organisation. This also includes the generalised opinions that are depicted by different individuals and the strong performance as well, which contribute in the IPO underpricing of Rosetta Stone in order for the evaluation of several financial aspects.

Rate of Return on Investment of Rosetta Stone

The following formula calculates the rate of return in terms of an investment for an organisation,

ROI =  x 100

Based on the data of 2009, the gain from investment has been $282.7 million and the cost of investment for the same year has been $276.6 million. By substituting these values in the above-defined equation, the following results have been obtained,

ROI =  x 100

ROI =  x 100

ROI = 0.02205 x 100

ROI = 2.205%

The profitability and investment factors can be compared in this context. With an ROI being 2.205%, it indicates the investment being made as an appropriate approach by the company. The reason for identifying the calculated return for the investments made as relevant is because this has been based on the present data of 2009. This ROI values instructs the company in employing the current approach for future profit as well. This is a positive impact on the financial performance of Rosetta Stone and would continue by investing in appropriate areas.

However, in comparison with the market, the investments for the organisation need to be enhanced in order to increase this ROI value of 2.205% to a greater extent, depicting more profit in future. Profit can be observed in this context; even so, incorrect depiction in the sense of limiting to this much profit only for future purposes should not be targeted.

Applying Free Cash Flow Model to Rosetta Stone

The Free Cash Flow (FCF) model presents itself as a measuring factor when it comes to the financial performance of a business venture in order to analyse the cash flow and capital expenditures. It indicates the cash that has been generated by the concerned organisation right after presenting the money, which is needed to maintain or develop the asset base of the organisation by itself.

Table 1: Free Cash Flow for Rosetta Stone

Free Cash Flow Statement for Rosetta Stone
2009 2010
Total revenue $ 209, 380 $ 226, 682
Cost of revenue $ 28, 676
Gross profit $ 180, 704 180, 704
Cost of Goods Sold $ 28, 676
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing $ 93, 384
Research and development $ 18, 387
Acquired in-process research and development $ 0
General and administrative $ 39, 577
Lease abandonment $ 1, 831
Transaction-related expenses 0
Selling, general and administrative expenses $ 153, 179 $ 153, 179
Earnings before interest, taxes, depr. & amort. (EBITDA) $ 27, 525 $ 0
Depreciation and amortization $ 1, 967 $ 28, 499
Earnings before Interest and taxes (EBIT) $ 25, 558 $ 28, 499
Available tax-loss carryforwards $ 0 $ 0
Net taxable earnings $ 25, 558 $ 28, 499
Federal and State Income Taxes  $ 10, 223 $ 11, 400
Net Operating Profit After-Tax (NOPAT) $ 15, 335 $ 17, 099
Add back depreciation and amortization $ 1, 967 $ 28, 499
Subtract Capital Expenditures ($ 1, 458) ($ 1, 458)
Subtract New Net Working Capital
Free Cash Flow $15, 844 $44, 140

By applying the free cash flow model, it has been observed that what particular trends are being observed within this organisation. By 2009 when the organisation adopted IPO process, its revenues growth was experienced by the management of this company. In these revenues, expenses were relatively less, since the cost of revenues was only 28,676 $.  This cost of revenues is also called the cost of goods sold. On the contrary, these revenues have been further divided into operating expenses that were associated with the IPO process at the time when the process first introduced. This cost included the sales and marketing expenses 9$ 93, 384), research and development ($ 18, 387), general and administrative cost ($ 39, 577), Lease abandonment ($ 1, 831), Transaction-related expenses (o), and Selling, general and administrative expenses ($ 153, 179).

Furthermore, depreciation and amortisation expense within this year also observed that were $ 1, 967 while the sales income tax contributes to the reduction in the profitability with the cut off of $ 10, 223. To arrive at its valuation of free cash flow, it was observed that the total cash flow by the year 2009 was only $15, 844. By contrast, based on the previous year, the expected future cash flow could be assessed. By the year 2010, it has been expected that the marginal revenues for Rosetta Stone would higher since there would be no huge cost of goods sold. The major reason behind this reduction in cost is due to the no investment on sales and marketing techniques, research and development, general and administrative cost, Lease abandonment, Transaction-related expenses, and Selling, general and administrative expenses.

This increase would be mainly driven by depreciable equipment as well as finite-lived intangible assets. On the contrary, an expected increase in the depreciation and amortisation ($ 28, 4990 can be observed due to the merger of integration costs related to the other organisations’ acquisition. Furthermore, an increase in the sales income tax also contributes in the future more that may reduce its revenues with decreasing rates. Still, the free cash flow to the organisation to trade would be in the form of $44, 140. This free cash flow statement of 2010 indicates that the survival of Rosetta Stone is increasingly possible with huge generated revenues.


The offer price set for IPO process might be 18 $ or above, since the company is being successful at its initial public offering (IPO) price. From the analysis of Rosetta Stone and its fundamental process, it has been evaluated that the firm is progressing with the passage of time. Although, the firm is using cloud-based business model and branding strategy using social media; however, the major success factor for this firm is the use of IPO process that ensures the selling equity at suitable prices. In this context, Rosetta Stone is more at the peak of the business cycle. Following the market multiples approach for presenting suitable share prices, this company has reached the height of the success. At the same time, the cash flow statement analysis ensures its further progress in the future based on the data of 2009 when IPO was introduced. Conversely, IPO process may contribute to its failures, if appropriate pricing policy is not focused on the market since it affects the corporate image of a business.


Brouthers, K.D., 2002. Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance. Journal of international business studies , 33(2), pp.203-21.

Dempsey, M., 2013. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM): the history of a failed revolutionary idea in finance? Abacus , 49(S1), pp. 7-23.

Heminger, A.R. & Robertson, S., 2000. The digital rosetta stone: A model for maintaining long-term access to static digital documents. Communications of the AIS, 3(1), p.2.

Hollands, M., 2010. Rosetta Stone Inc. The University of Oregon Investment Group (UOIG).

Lin, N., 2002. Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge university press.

Luecke, R., 2002. Market Multiples Approach. In Finance for Managers. Harvard Business Press.

Nasdaq, 2009. ROSETTA STONE INC (RST) IPO. Nasdaq.

Post, J.E., Preston, L.E. & Sauter-Sachs, S., 2002. Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth. Stanford University Press.

Ryan, C.F., 2016. Equity Valuation: The Comparables Approach. CFA Institute.

Véronis, J., 2000. From the Rosetta stone to the information society. Netherlands: Springer.

What is the most frustrating thing about being a high school student? — October 6, 2016

What is the most frustrating thing about being a high school student?

what-is-the-most-frustrating-thing-about-being-a-high-school-studentThe life of a secondary or high school student is loaded with frustration and disappointments that can ruin their educational procedure and lead to numerous students dropping out for their universities. Educators are up against an arrangement of legislator-initiated principles, and current methods of state sanctioned testing oblige them to hit certain benchmarks or disaster will be imminent. The students in any situations left with no choice, but to pay for professional writing services, it is known by them that with their average writing skills they would not reach the criterion of the high school.

Ultimate Restrictions


In the secondary school, the powerlessness to do what one needs may appear like something worth being thankful for at first glance, however it really rebuffs the wrong individuals. Students can’t think about what they need to and school tries to pass a toll each and every year and it comes up short more than once.

What happens when duties come up short? The school plays hooky. In addition, what if they do not want to be a writer or ready to write? Thank fully we have some essay writing help else the whole life of the students would have been ruined yet.

Grades, Are All What Matter


An appraisal is a need for figuring out where a student is at and how far they need to go. This overwhelming takes place when the student are driven to concentrate on a relatively irrelevant of the procedure. This includes, overlooking their educator’s remarks on how they could enhance, skipping right to the letter or number to which we call grade.

Truth is stranger than fiction, here and there, you can see your cohorts get back a paper with huge amounts of remarks jotted in the edges, and hop to the last page just to see the evaluation at the base. What does this say in regards to the organization of evaluations that individuals esteem them over significant, supportive input? Nothing!

Producing Graduates Not A Skilled Person


This is on the grounds that high school did not intend to energize full grown, energetic youthful, inspired grown-ups to learn instead it intends to take into account the worst of the worst, to make a laypeople that can take after retaining realities, headings, round out printed material and so on. The most exceedingly bad thing about high school is that it does not treats you as an individual student, but it intended for all the students, and there is no structure right now set up to cure that.

Losing Yourself


High school juniors still trust that high school makes you lose what makes you unique, keeping in mind the end goal to fit the criteria and standards set by the society by losing your capacity to think moderately and envision.

We are so fortunate to get free instruction. Should not we be ensuring that it is justified regardless of each individual student’s while? As it were, splendid students do not feel tested by their present classes, and they do not feel there are any choices set up, which may do as such.




Sooner than Later

Most of the students are stuck with the dreary writing process in their academic life and despite all the effort, they tend to be clumsy at it or tended to buy assignment writing help. No wonder how genius you are and have a strong grip over studies, sooner or later every student is witnessed to be seen in immense stress and tension that makes completing the writing very difficult. Well, despite of being taught and trained several times, the students still mingle and confuse the ideas, making the paper vague and incomprehensible. They find it hard to sort out the information in a structural manner due to which the students complexes their expressions in writing and end up producing a paper that represents inappropriate and invalid writing style.

Forbidden in Writing

Other sin that is mostly committed by students is the use of informal language especially slangs in the academic writing assignments. This mistake is unforgivable and strictly prohibited. Using extraordinary vocabulary words is not essential, as the key to write effectively is by ensuring that the message has been conveyed easily. The spoken language and writing are two different scenarios and requires distinct attention to ensure that they are understood correctly. Writing is a bit more compound and needs to be carefully drafted and structured in order to present complete sentences carrying relevant information. Grammar, spelling and tenses should be accurate to perfection. Write to answer the objectives in your own words ascertaining zero plagiarism.

Academic Services Assistance

Academic writing services UK is also playing a major role in determining that the students abide by the instructions provided while writing their assignments. This has notably improvised their performance thereby adding in the interest of many students worldwide. With the importance being stressed on accomplishing the essence of writing, it is must to pay attention to each and every small detail that will eventually enhance its quality and standard. The core focus should be upon ensuring that the reader finds the academic assignment worth reading due to the stature of writing. Make use of all the available resource to incorporate informative details in the assignment to meet the expectation of the Professor.

Pen down the Pointers

Remember some of the tips mentioned below to combat any difficulty in the writing process. It will also assist in ensuring that the completed paper has followed the correct use of language mechanics that truly depicts the knowledge of the students. The key elements are:

  • Avoid using any contractions such as don’t, can’t, he’ll and etc.
  • Never incorporate irrelevant information to misguide the reader.
  • Shun writing colloquial language or the use of slang words.
  • Always write to the point, mentioning the important details only.
  • Generally, the authors replace one word equivalents with phrasal verbs.
  • Make sure the words are connected and linked with the help of conjunctions.
  • Exclamation marks are not used in formal writing and should be avoided.
  • First person pronouns are never written in the paper.
  • Attitudinal signals that includes arguably, strangely should be used.
Essay Writing Service that Stuns the Readers — May 19, 2016

Essay Writing Service that Stuns the Readers


A reliable academic writing service claims to evoke sensation and enthrone the readers with amazing piece of writing that keeps them hooked till the last word. Few hints are given to construct a phenomenal essay that will gain immense appreciation:


As soon as you are assigned an essay, start reading the topic. No matter how typical the essay title is, make reading it worthwhile. Now this entirely depends upon your expertise to breath in life to the boring exhaustive essay. It is more fascinating to discover how the writer skilfully turns around the weary topic in to an interesting one. This is the characteristic technique that compels the reader to start reading your essay.


The next target is to add any attention grabbing detail that could be a story or any other
interesting facts that attract the reader spontaneously. Implementation of such strategies
is a must as it ensures that the reader cannot switch to any other task. So design your essay in a manner that the reader is glued to it. The tone of the essay should precisely communicate with the intended audience to gain their attention. Many students get scared of this stage and intend to buy essays online UK. However, it is confirmed that no one can write as good as a professional writer. Besides trying yourself, you can go for buying the essays online.


Now begin unleashing the information that you have collected to complete the essay. Structure your paragraphs in an efficient manner. The introductory paragraph should be given the utmost importance as just by reading it the reader decides if he should proceed or not. Incorporate the best arguments in the body paragraph. Highlight all the key information to support the statements for producing concrete essay writing.


Another key feature to write good essay is to not only convey your knowledge but keep inquiring readers view. So that he/she constantly keeps evaluating and analyzing the information while reading it. It connects the reader with you and simultaneously convinces him to keep reading. The other hallmark for seeking attention is the flawless use of vocabulary in the sentences varying the complexity as required in the essay.


Finish your essay in such a way that the details echo the undertaken arguments in the following paragraphs. Maintain the element of interest as it keeps the reader engrossed. Rephrase and shorten the details to conclude the essay and it should be in accordance with the information mentioned in the introductory and body paragraphs. Leave it on a note that it dazzles the reader and pushes them to think about it a little more after it has ended.

Practice makes a man perfect. Keep writing till you start creating clear and concise masterpieces. Attain guidance from reliable essay writing service for success.